| Background | BG FWSAR Project Candidates |
In Detail |
CASR — Canadian American Strategic Review
Future New Fixed-Wing Search & Rescue – FWSAR Project –
Canadian Forces Fixed-Wing Search and Rescue (FWSAR) Project
The Fixed-Wing Search and Rescue Project was intended to provide replacements for the six remaining FWSAR CC-115 Buffalo aircraft while also relieving the
Canadian Forces Hercules fleet of its SAR duties. Planning for FWSAR replacements began in 2002
before being taken on as a 'top priority' by the Chrétien Liberal government in 2003. Funding for 15
new aircraft ($1.3B) was allocated in the March 2004 Federal budget with first deliveries to begin in
[ For a more complete listing of dates/events for FWSAR, see our FWSAR Project timeline.]
Almost from its outset, the FWSAR Project has been beset by a near absurd series of woes. Each Federal
government from Chrétien to Harper made FWSAR a top priority only to jump away from the Project to avoid
allegations of sole-sourcing. By 2005, competitor EADS was accusing DND of having written their specification
around the rival candidate. And on the surface, that does appear to be the case. But, since DND has never
released any version of the FWSAR Project's Statement of Operational Requirements, how would the public
First Round Favourites for the Fixed-Wing Search and Rescue Project – C-27J and C295
Originally, there were two front-runners for the Fixed-Wing Search and Rescue Project. They were the Italian
Alenia C-27J Spartan (see C-27J
Geneology) and Spanish CASA C-295. 
Certainly DND and the Air Force have made little effort to hide the fact that Alenia's C-27J Spartan
was always the apple of their eye for FWSAR. The technical merits of the original FWSAR candidates have been
argued ad nauseum. Suffice it to say, the Italian C-27J is bigger and more expensive than its original
rival – the Spanish C295. The C-27J Spartan is also very heavy for a twin-engined tactical transport
which severely limits the number of unpaved Arctic airstrips it can land on.
But the C-27J was FWSAR Project front-runner for a reason. By tactical transport standards, the Spartan is
fast and long-ranging (allowing the Air Force to retain its preferred FWSAR Main Operating Bases in the far south
of Canada while still reaching SAR sites in the Arctic in passable time). A C-27J carries a substantial cargo load
which helps DND planners offset dwindling numbers of larger CF Hercules transports. Commonality with
the CC-130J model Hercules now entering Canadian service was a raison d'être for the updated
By contrast, the rival EADS-CASA – now Airbus Military – C295 is approximately the size of a Bombardier
Q200 airliner. Contrary to the claims by its denigrators, though, the C295 is no civilian aircraft modified for a
military role. Indeed, the reverse is true.  But the C295 is slower than a C-27J and has a smaller cargo
hold. The lower cabin height is said to make life more awkward for SAR Techs. EADS addressed range and speed
critiques in 2005, suggesting permanently basing some FWSAR aircraft further north (St. John's NL, Iqaluit, NU,
and Yellowknife, NT ).
It took half a decade but EADS' alternative basing concept now has some traction – and, at government
instigation, has been added to the latest version of the FWSAR SOR. Ironically, Airbus Military is not the sole
beneficiary of this SOR change. As re-launched, the FWSAR Project must now consider any proposed alternative
basing concepts as well as a possible two aircraft-type fleet. Not what Airbus was hoping for
but still playing to their advantage.
Alternative basing removes many of the performance advantages held by the C-27J Spartan. At the same time,
Airbus can push lower operating costs, ability to use semi-prepared Arctic airfields, and a degree of Canadian
content (twin Pratt & Whitney Canada PW127G engines).
A Widening Field means more Candidates for the Fixed-Wing Search and Rescue Project
In 2010, the Harper government ordered the National Research Council to review the terms of that
still-secret FWSAR Project Statement of Operational Requirements. In the aftermath of the NRC's report,
the FWSAR SOR was revised yet again. The upshot was that DND was told to consider Alternative Service Delivery by
private contractors, and to allow alternative proposals (including alternative FWSAR basing and a future FWSAR fleet
made up of two aircraft types). That gave hope to potential FWSAR suppliers previously rejected
by DND and to others who'd yet to throw their hats into the ring. FWSAR's field is now much wider.
[ For details of that field, see our Fixed-Wing Search & Rescue
Project: Current Candidates.]
The wider field represents the new possibilities for both larger and smaller potential candidates. Along with
the familiar C-27J and C-295, other FWSAR candidates are a proposed, new-production Viking DHC-5NG
Buffalo and Bell-Boeing's tilt-rotor V-22 Osprey (at the smaller end ), and Lockheed
Martin's C-130J Hercules and Brazil's as- yet unbuilt Brazilian Embraer KC-390 (at the larger end ).
DND likely had little say in these government-dictated conditions. Other recommendations by the NRC were only paid
lip-service. The option of contractor-provided ASD was rejected by DND, but that is hardly surprising. Whenever
billions of dollars are budgeted for a new procurement, neither DND nor the Air Force is going to be tempted to
hand the cheque over to private contractors. Fortunately, for those inside the Puzzle Palace, the debate was to be
between the Minister of National Defence and Lead Minister for the National Search and Rescue
Secretariat. Since Peter MacKay wears both hats, it would be a short conversation.
So, ten years on, there are some signs of bureaucratic movements but nothing that remotely approaches progress on
an actua procurement. And yet, there's a buzz of excitment over the revived possibility of something actually
happening. And that forms a sad little pattern. As a nation, we have come to accept the idea that spending
Billions on anything at all must be better than continuing to do nothing. Say what you will about the FWSAR
project office, it is impressive that, even after a decade of fumblings, they've managed to dodge any serious
debate on possible alternatives to FWSAR as practiced. Instead, as a population, we have been bored into
submission. Just paint something yellow! The citizenry will be glad its over.
 Names and designation style changed over time. Seville's Construcciones Aeronáuticas
SA became EADS CASA in 1999 before becoming part of Airbus Military in 2009. Hyphens (or spaces) in EADS CASA
aircraft designations were dropped to better fit the Airbus style.
 All the C295s sold are in military service. The C295 evolved from the Spanish-Indonesian Airtech CN235 which was
to be a Spanish military transport and dual civil-military transport in Indonesia. The C295, which first flew
in 1998, is a stretched CN235 with Canadian engines.
| Background | BG FWSAR Project Candidates |
In Detail |